# Nozzle and diffuser pdf

Post a Comment. Recent Updates. Today we will see here the steady flow energy equation for nozzle and diffuser with the help of this post. Finally we will also see here the applications of nozzle and diffuser. After this post, we will see the steady flow energy equation for throttling devices in our next post.

Nozzle is an engineering device which will accelerate the fluid and hence fluid velocity or kinetic energy of fluid will be increased while pressure of fluid will be reduced.

Diffuser is an engineering device which will decelerate the fluid and hence fluid velocity or kinetic energy of fluid will be decreased while pressure of fluid will be increased. Following figure displayed here, indicates the nozzle and diffuser and also it indicates the variation of velocity and pressure with the help of the curve as shown in following figure. Let us consider the case of nozzle and let us write here the steady flow energy equation.

Here, heat energy transfer or work energy transfer across the system boundary will be zero and change in potential energy will also be zero. Therefore we will have following equation as displayed here.

We must note it here that above equations is also valid for diffuser. Nozzles and diffusers are normally used in various applications such as jet engines, rockets, garden hoses and spacecraft too.

Do you have suggestions? Please write in comment box. Engineering thermodynamics by P. Engineering thermodynamics by R. Image courtesy: Google. What is thermal energy reservoir? Prove that internal energy is a property of the system. Figurative language.

Basic concept of bearing.

Aircraft reliability and maintenance. Bearing operating condition and various terminologies. Labels: Thermal Engineering and Power Unit. No comments:. Newer Post Older Post Home. Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom. Search The Topic Here. Powered by Blogger.An adiabatic process is one in which no heat is transferred to or from the fluid during the process Such a process can be reversible or irreversible For an adiabatic process to take place, perfect thermal insulation for the system must be available.

Most of the turbo-machines operate adiabatically. Similarly in an adiabatic compression process all the work done on the fluid goes to increase the internal energy of the fluid Isentropic process Reversible adiabatic process is known as isentropic process There is no change in the entropy p.

Since by definition, W is the useful energy, it is the work of a the isentropic process Energy equation From the first law of thermodynamics we have For applications in turbomachines, the energy term will include internal energy, gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. Change in the energy in a finite process between two states is given by 1 Sub. In eqn. Stagnation enthalpy It is defined as the enthalpy of the gas or vapour when it is adiabatically decelerated to zero velocity The stagnation enthalpy is constant in a flow process that does not involve a work transfer or a heat transfer even though irreversible processes may be present The stagnation state is represented by the point 01 brought about by an irreversible deceleration.

For a reversible deceleration the stagnation point would be at point 01s and the state change would be called isentropic. Stagnation temperature The stagnation temperature is defined through stagnation enthalpy For a perfect gas we have and Where M is the Mach number The mach no. Then stagnation pressure can be determined from the Bernoulli eqn.

Adiabatic flow through nozzles But the actual process is irreversible adiabatic. The actual velocity c 2 is less tan than the isentropic velocity. Nozzle efficiency should be a measure of he energy transformation We have 7 Nozzle Velocity coefficient Most of the applications the gas or steam enters the nozzle from a large space. So the enthalpy at the beginning of the process is considered as h 01 instead of h 1 We have Nozzle efficiency for small pressure ratio From eqn.

Adiabatic flow through diffusers The transformation of KE of gases in to a static pressure rise takes place in a diffuser There is no change in entropy and loss in stagnation pressure during a reversible adiabatic pressure. But actual process is irreversible adiabatic, it must be accompanied by a stagnation pressure loss and increase in entropy. Final state after irreversible adiabatic process is represented by point 2. This is fixed by assuming same change in the KE. There will be a change in static pressure but the stagnation enthalpy remains the same Diffuser efficiency for small pressure rise For small rise in static pressure, the flow in the diffuser can be considered as incompressible constant Therefore the pressure rise is given by For the actual state point 2 Therefore the pressure rise in actual process is given by But Thus we have Diffuser efficiency But we have Diffuser efficiency for large pressure rise For large pressure rise through diffuser, density change is appreciable and flow is compressible We have the energy equation for the processes Substituting this in to the efficiency equation we have For incompressible flow this expression can be reduced to expressions derived for small pressure rise.

For example Therefore we have This is same as the expression that derived for small pressure rise. Work and efficiencies in turbine stages Energy equation in various forms and the concepts discussed for nozzles can employed for turbines In turbines the difference is on account of the presence of shaft work Ideal and actual expansion process in turbine In the isentropic process son account of work transfer there is a drop in stagnation enthalpy and the entropy remains same on account of isentropic process The actual expansion process irreversible adiabaticon account of irreversibility there is an increase in entropy Stagnation pressures at exit cannot be compared with initial stagnation pressures because of the work transfer.

The actual work at the turbine can be determined from the change in stagnation enthalpies at the entry and exit. However the distance between them is small. The stagnation pressure ratio is This expression when substituted in eqn. Some turbine stages exhaust in to atmosphere or in a closed space like condenser In such case the ideal work is the work done between the states O 1 and 2s The actual work remains the same as the before The total to static efficiency is given by If.

Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Read Free For 30 Days. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. Start Free Trial Cancel anytime. Nozzles and Diffusers. Uploaded by Akshay Deshpande. Document Information click to expand document information Description: Nozzles and Diffusers.

Date uploaded Aug 21, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate?Nozzles The flow of steam through nozzles Effect of friction Types of nozzles Nozzle efficiency Critical pressure for max discharge through nozzle General relationship of area and velocity Velocity in case of enthalpy Super saturated flow Diffusers Classification of diffusers.

The flow of steam through nozzles may be regarded as adiabatic expansion. The expansion of steam through the nozzle is not a free expansion and the steam is not throttled because it has very high speed at the end of expansion. The enthalpy of steam decreases as expansion takes place.

The pressure energy of steam is changed into kinetic energy. There is also a phenomenon known as super saturation in flow of steam through nozzles. This is due to the time lag in the condensation of steam during expansion. This supersaturated flow effects the mass and condition of steam discharged.

Therefore, the flow of steam through a nozzle may be regarded as either i adiabatic and reversible flow ii adiabatic flow modified by friction iii a supersaturated. Due to friction caused to the steam by the nozzle, the steam is reheated and the expansion is not isentropic.

Thusthe effect of friction is: i To reduce the enthalpy drop. There are three types of nozzles: i Converging nozzle ii Diverging nozzle iii Converging-diverging nozzle. Nozzle efficiency is defined as the ratio of actual enthalpy drop to that due to isentropic expansion.

In other wordsit is ratio of actual gain in kinetic energy to that due to isentropic expansion. The material of which nozzle is made. Smoothness of the nozzle. Size and shape of nozzle.

The angle of nozzle divergence. Fluid velocity. Critical pressure for max discharge through nozzle. The pressure at which the is min and the discharge per. As we know, the smallest cross-sectional area of the nozzle is know as the throat.

General relationship of Area and Velocity According to continuity equationthe mass flow rate. Diffusers A diffuser converts high speed, low pressure flow to low speed, high pressure flow.

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### nozzle and diffuser

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STEADY FLOW ENGINEERING DEVICES - NOZZLE

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## Nozzles and Diffusers

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